Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for one-carbon metabolism and cell division . Its synthesis is very complex and limited to microorganisms.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) definition

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is necessary for one-carbon metabolism and cell division . Its synthesis is very complex and limited to microorganisms. Vitamin B12 is used to describe compounds of the cobalt coronoid family, in particular those of the cobalamin group.

The final substances, which occur in nature from vitamin B12 biosynthesis, are 5’-deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Interestingly, animals, including humans and protists, need cobalamin, but do not make it . Two forms of vitamin B12 are biologically active as cofactors in enzyme reactions: adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin.

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) plays a noticeable activity in DNA combination and neurologic capacity Deficiency can stimulate a wide range of hematologic and neuropsychiatric issue that can regularly be turned around by early finding and short treatment.

The actual prevalence of nutrient B12 inadequacy in everyone is obscure. The appearance , in any case, seems to raise with age Figure 1.. In one study 15 percent of grown-ups more seasoned than 65 years had lab proof of vitamin B12 lack. The about universal utilization of gastric corrosive blocking operators, which can prompt diminished nutrient B12 levels.

Chemical Structure of vitamin B12

Causes Of Vitamın B12 Defıcıency

The reason of vitamin B12 deficiency can be divided into three classes: i) nutritional deficiency, ii) malabsorption syndromes and iii) other gastrointestinal causes.

Nutritional Deficiency

Nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 can occur in explicit populaces. The elderly patient , chronic alcohol and veggie are most in danger because of the dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 every now and again found inside these groups.

Malabsorption Syndromes

The major case of a malabsorption defect is malignant weakness. This state is the after influence of an immune system disease where antibodies assault the parietal cells of the stomach. Analysts actually accept there is an age-related decrease in the intestinal ingestion of vitamin B12

  • In this way, it trauma no one that vitamin B12 weakness has been calculate for in about 15% of adult more seasoned than 65 years.

Other GI Causes

The very rare, confirmed gastrointestinal (GI ) conditions can also cause decrease vitamin B12. In the case that a patient has diffusion an intestinal parasite, for example, Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm) this may rival the gastric microvilli for the retention of vitamin B12 Similarly, if a patient has a high number of bacterial in the little entail (generally found in those with a background marked by intestinal medical procedure), it would also rival the ileum for the absorption of vitamin B12.

Evaluatıon Of Vıtamın B12 Defıcıency

Both the clinical acknowledgment of vitamin B12 inadequacy and confirmation of the determination by methods for testing can be annoying . The patient’s history may mix side effects of paleness, basic issue causes malabsorption, and neurologic manifestations. The most widely recognized neurologic side effects are symmetric paresthesia or deadness and step problem.

The physical assessment may changes in the skin uncover whiteness, edema, pigmentary, jaundice, or neurologic defect , for example, sensitivity of disabled vibration impeded position and skin sensitivity, the loss of full control of bodily movements(ataxia), and shortcoming . Bone marrow biopsy and yearning are a bit much for the determination of megaloblastic anemia and may be deluding in instances of extreme pancytopenia with hypercellularity, diffuse erythroblasts, and even cytogenetic anomalies, mistaking the finding for intense leukemia.

However in instances of danger myelopathy that are not at first perceived as the effect the decrease of vitamin B12, there is trademark hyper intensity on T2-weighted imaging, portrayed as an altered V-formed example in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord.

Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

The daily needed of vitamin B12 has been set at 2.4 μg, but higher amounts 4 to 7 μg per day which are common in persons who eat meat or take a daily multivitamin, are associated with lower methylmalonic acid values. Healthy older adults should consider taking supplemental crystalline vitamin B12 as recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board. However, most pa – tients with clinical vitamin B12 deficiency have malabsorption and will require parenteral or highdose oral replacement. Adequate supplementation results in resolution of megaloblastic anemia and resolution of or improvement in myelopathy.

Patients with severe abnormalities should receive injections of 1000 μg at least several times per week for 1 to 2 weeks, then weekly until clear improvement is shown, followed by monthly injections. Hematologic response is rapid, with an increase in the reticulocyte count in 1 week and correction of megaloblastic anemia in 6 into 8 weeks. Patients with severe anemia and cardiac symptoms should be treated with transfusion and diuretic agents, and electrolytes should be monitored. Neurologic symptoms may worsen transiently and then subside over weeks to months.

The severity and duration of the neurologic abnormalities before treatment influence the eventual degree of recovery.

Treatment of malignant anemia is lifelong. In patients in which vitamin B12 supplementa tion is turn off after clinical recovery, neurologic symptoms recur within as short a period as 6 months, and megaloblastic anemia repeat in several years.

Vitamin B12 and Depression

Vitamin B12 linked compounds are characterized by a cobalt-centred corrin nucleus. Cyanocobalamin is the metabolically active shape of vitamin B12, but other shape form naturally in biological method contain methyl cobalamin, cob(I)alamin, 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin.

The interactive C-Co bonds in B12 participate in isomerism and methyltransferase reactions that help to extract energy from proteins and fats and participated in methylation. B12 is required for proper functioning of the nervous system, nerve cell maintenance, cell composition and breakdown of amino acid and fatty acids.

A close relative found between folate and vitamin b12 all depend on the other one for activation . Vitamin B12 is made by bacteria, large amount of vitamin b12 is synthesized by human colon bacteria , not absorbed by the colon. Attractive study was taken in the 1950 where by vegan patient form vitamin B12 deficiency were drink water take out of their own faeces therefore traet their vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical symptoms of B12 deficiency include, loss of appetite, weakness and fatigue, weight loss and constipation, peripheral tingling and soreness of the mouth and tongue.

Within the immune system, vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated with a reduction in CD8+ and natural killer cells and raises TNF-alpha made by macrophages, while IL-6 and TNF-alpha deviations were corrected with vitamin B12 complement.

B12 deficiency has been refer to severe depression, suicidal behaviors, reduced cognition, mental fatigue, low mood, mania, psychosis and strong agitation. B12 deficiency also interferes with the body’s ability to produce high turnover cells such as red blood cells which can result in megaloblastic anemia . The interrelatedness of the methionine path with the purine and thymidylate cycles plays a critical role in the composition of neurotransmitters, and any disorder in one pathway can cause an disparity within the others, which in turn can causes the production of neurotransmitters led to depression.