Nanotechnology is available in an unlimited number of materials and techniques that allow material to be manipulated on an atomic level where the dimensions of structures are ranging from 1 to 100 nm that could have new properties comparing to corresponded bigger material. Developments in the industries and applications based on nanotechnology and nanotechnology are growing tremendously. One of the most extensively researched fields of nanotechnology is the use of nanomaterials (NMs) in agriculture and biomedicine.
Bacteria have been shown to absorb nanoscale materials , as well as being capable of penetrating plant cells and causing high-dose phytotoxicity. Several scientists and environmentalists around the world have been inspired by nanotechnology-based agrochemical work to explore the effect of nanotechnology on agricultural crops. In practice, nanotechnology provides wide developments in agriculture, as with the treatment and prevention of diseases in plants through utilizing nanocides and control of nutrients in the field using nano fertilizers.
Nanotechnology is a modern word, but it has not been used recently in any field solar energy supports plant life through photosynthesis. In plants, there are molecular ensembles, which have light-harvesting molecules, like chlorophyll, arranged on the nanometer to micrometer scales within the cells. that structures collect light energy and transform it into the chemical energy which drives the plant cell biochemical machinery. Live organs use chemical energy in the body. A type of bacteria, the flagella rotates at more than 10,000 RPM.
Different types of nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, magnetic particles, metal, polymers, nonmetal, etc. Their usage and potential impact in various fields have been studied. Nanomaterials such as these types exert bad and good effects usually depend on their structures and interactions with microbes in the plants or tissues. There is also no clear evidence of the benefits and risks at the current level of knowledge. Transporting method of nanomaterials in the food industry may be through biosolids treated in water treatment plants or direct application on land.
Nevertheless, nanomaterials produced are neither controlled nor regulated although measurable in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) systems. While scientific reports are available on measuring and detecting these materials and pollutants via utilizing advanced equipment. However, the use of these expensive devices seems regularly unfeasible.
The Application and Prospect of Nanotechnology
In the current century, it is known that nanoscience and nanotechnology have a great influence on societies and economies, which can be compared to information technology, semiconductor technology, molecular and cellular biology. Research on nanotechnology shows that there can be revolutionary developments in various fields such as manufacturing of materials and electronics, healthcare and medicine, biotechnology, energy, information technologies and national security. For this reason, nanotechnology is involved in the industrial revolution of the future.
Application of Nanotechnology in Materials
The products resulting from the applications of nanotechnology in textile products can be called nano-textile. Nano-textiles include all textile products obtained as a result of nanotechnology applications. By processing textile products with nanomaterials, it is possible to improve the properties of these products and make them longer lasting. Nanotechnology is easy to clean, scratch resistant, etc. By providing products with new functions, it affects many areas of interest to consumers. One of the most well-known applications of nanotechnology in homes is easy-to-clean ceramic or glass surfaces or self-cleaning. Nano-ceramic particles also improve the heat resistance and smoothness of commonly used household items such as irons and pans.
Application of Nanotechnology in Chemical Industry
As a photocatalyst, nanoparticles have many advantages. first of all, the particle size is small, the specific surface area is large, and the photocatalytic efficiency is high. Also, nanoparticles Most of the generated electrons and holes will not regenerate before reaching the surface Combine. Therefore, the number of electrons and holes that can reach the surface is large, so high reactivity. Secondly, nanoparticles dispersed in the medium often have Transparent, easy to use optical means and methods to observe the interface Charge transfer, proton transfer, semiconductor energy level structure, and surface state density Impact. At present, the industry uses nano-titanium dioxide-dioxide Iron as a photocatalyst for wastewater treatment has achieved good results. The researchers also discovered that the unique pores of carbon nanotubes can be used structure, large surface area high mechanical strength is made into a nanoreactor, the reactor can confine the chemical reaction to a small area.
Application of Nanotechnology in Food
Food packaging can be enhanced by placing antimicrobial agents directly on the coated nanocomposite film. By adding nanoscale clay particles to the structure of the polymer, oxygen and water permeability can be reduced. Thus, its recycling feature is also increased. This process also protects foods from drying out and spoiling. Silver, which has been used as an antimicrobial agent for centuries, has recently been added to antimicrobial packaging as nanoscale silver to preserve the freshness of nutrients for longer.
Application of Nanotechnology in Medical Field
With the development of nanotechnology, technology has also begun to emerge in medicine. Researchers have discovered that the RNA-protein complex in organisms has linearity between 15 and 20 nm and that many viruses in organisms are also nanoparticles. Particles below 10 nm are smaller than red blood cells in the blood, so they can flow freely in blood vessels. If ultrafine particles are injected into the blood and transported to various parts of the human body, they can be used as a means of monitoring and diagnosing diseases. Nano-SiO2 particles have been used successfully by researchers for cell separation and also gold nanoparticles for targeted lesion treatment to reduce side effects. In addition, viral inducers using nanoparticles as carriers have made breakthroughs, and are now used in clinical animal experiments, and are expected to serve humans shortly.
Application of Nanotechnology in Environment and Energy
Productivity in the fossil fuel industry can be increased through a variety of nanomaterials and nanocomposites. Thus, both higher efficiency motors and environmentally friendly systems can be obtained. In addition, one of the biggest problems of today all over the world is increasing energy-fuel consumption. If a solution to this problem is not found as soon as possible, human beings face the risk of depletion of natural resources within 50 years. Moreover, the damage caused by these fuels to the environment has increased substantially. Hydrogen energy emerges as an alternative solution to this problem. Hydrogen energy is the high density and safe storage of hydrogen. Nanomaterials are also used in this storage process