General Futures of Chickpea
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is mainly produced in the Mediterranean Basin and South Asia, also in the world, chickpea is the third most important type of legume. Chickpea is thought to have first domesticated within the region including Turkey, south-east and adjacent Syria.
For the fact that three closely related wild annual species of chickpea, Cicer reticulatum, Cicer echinospermum and Cicer bijugum, were discovered there wherein Cicer reticulatum is considered to be the progenitor of the cultivated chickpea. Some accessions of C. reticulatum were found to be resistant to Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. The annual species C. reticulatum is considered to be the wild progenitor of the cultivated chickpea and both the species are interfertile, suggesting this species is the wild progenitor as the primary gene pool of the cultigen.
Cicer echinospermum is considered as a secondary gene pool and can be crossable with both the wild progenitor and the cultivated chickpea, it has a high barrier to gene flux and hybrids appear to be sterile. The remaining annual Cicer species will form the tertiary gene pool. As mentioned previously, C. reticulatum and C. echinospermum are the two wild species in the secondary gene pool. Cicer reticulatum crosses with Cicer arietinum, resulting in completely fertile hybrids and progenies. Cicer reticulatum is considered as the wild progenitor of C. arietinum based on morphological and cytological similarities as well as crossability.
The genus Cicer comprises 43 wild species (35 perennials and 8 annuals) and a cultivated chickpea (C. arietinum), which were grouped into three gene pools based on crossability with chickpea.
There have two major commercial chickpea varieties;
the “Desi” kind including darker colored and smaller seeds that can range between from black to, yellow while the “Kabuli” variety with sizeable, smooth, and light-colored seeds. ‘Desi’ it is prevalence in the Afghanistan, East Asia and Indian subcontinent. These seeds have anthocyanin pigment, which represents 85 – 90% of global produce.
The Kabuli kind chickpeas are distinguished by beige-colored or white seed, white flowers, smooth seed surface, with a ram’s head shape, lack of anthocyanin pigmentation on the stem, and thin seed coat. Compared within the “Desi” varieties, the “Kabuli” varieties have higher levels of sucrose and lower levels of fiber. The Kabuli kinds ordinarily have huge-sized seeds. They are cultivated throughout the Mediterranean basin and in the south and Central America, responsible for around 10-15% of the production of chickpeas in the world. Throughout Turkey, the Kabuli variety of chickpea is substantial as it is produced in areas of 392,673 ha and annual production is about 470,000 tons.
Owing to its ability to develop in various settings, it has spread too many other geographic regions of the world. Furthermore, it is preferable to grow chickpeas in well-drained soil with a neutral Ph. It does not respond well to saline soils and does not tolerate soils that are wet or waterlogged. In a large range of soil types, chickpeas can be successfully grown. A disease complex caused by many species of fungi is the damping-off and root rots of pulses. Bad seedling growth accompanied by yellow seedlings with a brown/black taproot is the first symptom of damping off.
Several variables can lead to root rot in seedlings that have emerged. Early in the growing season, these include cool rainy weather, soil compaction leading to poor drainage, nutrient deficiency, and short crop rotations. In chickpeas, both diseases are most commonly caused by Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and the pathogen of root rot, Aphanomyces euteiches. However, chickpeas are partly immune and disease only occurs with very little incidence and severity in Montana pulse fields.
The main climate pressures are cold, heat, and drought. Among these factors, drought is the primary determinant, especially since chickpeas are usually grown as a crop after the rainy season. Drought stress can be addressed with irrigation, but this is not the case for many chickpea growers. Advancing sowing dates in some areas can mitigate the impact of water stress and increase seed yield, but the best results are obtained through increased drought tolerance. The plant is vulnerable to numerous diseases that are infectious and soil-borne, some of which can be devastating. Around 172 pathogens consisting of viruses, bacteria, and fungi cause chickpeas to suffer. Thirty-eight of these pathogens are soil-borne, belonging to 19 fungus genera-species including.