Definition Of Bipolar Disorder 1 and 2


Bipolar Disorder Disorder is characterized by the presence of mood swings. These mood swings cause two main episodes which are depressive and manic episodes. It is a disorder caused by a disfunction of some neurotransmitters in the brain.

Definition Of Bipolar Disorder I and II

There are two common types of Bipolar Disorder Type I and Type II. Research has shown that these types have major differences in characteristics. Bipolar Disorder Type I is typically recognized by the presence of one or more manic and mixed episodes along with depression. Bipolar Disorder Type II, on the other hand, has a long period of depression and a hypomanic episode that lasts less than a manic episode.

The definitions of Bipolar Disorder type I and type II are currently being reviewed by the World Health Organization and American Psychological Association. Bipolar Disorder I, which is also known as manic-depression or manic-depressive disorder is a condition characterized by the presence of at least one manic and/or mixed episode, which can be explained as two episodes alternating the same day or day after day. BP-I patients, compared to BP-II patients are found to have higher rates of genetic proneness to mania/ hypomania, have more episodes in their lifetime, higher illness progression, clearer seasonality of episodes and mixed episodes.

In 1994 bipolar disorder-II was officially recognized by American Psychiatric Association and was included to DSM-IV. Bipolar disorder-II can be perceived very similar to BP-I in its nature, however, in this type of the disorder, the patients never reach full mania; their state is described as hypomania.

Prevalence of Bipolar Disorder

Among many disorders classified by DSM V, bipolar disorder could be considered one of the most prevalent ones. It is the 4th most common mental disorder, after depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. About 2.4% of the world population is diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

The disorder is also very common in USA. About 0,92% of USA population is diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder Type I. This also coincides with the global statistics which state that the prevalence of the diagnosis is about 1% in the whole world. In 39% of cases with bipolar disorder, the disease shows itself after the age of 20, which very often coincides with the period of higher education or the period of early work after high school. Studies done to understand the demographics of people diagnosed with the bipolar disorder in USA show that this illness starts between the ages of 23.8 and 27.7.

Job Satisfaction and Bipolar Disorder

Job satisfaction is the degree of how much people like doing their jobs. It can be related to their professions, environments, organizational climate and many other factors. It is a very important concept because organizations that have high levels of job satisfaction in their employees have lower turnover levels.

People diagnosed with bipolar disorder report having lower levels of job satisfaction. At least 31% of participants in a study find their jobs uninteresting and 52% have thought at least once that their jobs are boring, which can be cause lower job satisfaction levels.

Bipolar Disorder and Occupational Functioning

Bipolar disorder causes impairment in social, family and work life. A very significant and recent study with a large number of participants showed that depression has a big, negative impact on work performance. Since factors such as psychological demands, work schedule, and job insecurity have positive correlation with depression, they contribute to lower self-efficiency and performance at work. Since this disorder is identified by the presence of mood swings in an individual, a patient continuously goes through depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. The depressive episode is more disabling compared to the manic stage. Also, it is seen to last longer than the manic one.

The disorder is closely related to unemployment. About 60% of US residents with bipolar disorder experience long periods of unemployment during their lifetime. The WHO report suggested that, bipolar disorder is a greater burden than any kind of cancer, epilepsy and many other physical and psychological diseases. One of the largest costs is hospitalization according to some studies done in the US, stating that, 49% of the costs are direct medical costs for a bipolar disorder patient.

Productivity loss costs due to unemployment arrive to 69%. Studies conducted in different regions also supported the previous ones. The annual cost for treating patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder is about 2 billion £ at 1999-2000 prices. 10% for direct hospital prices, 4% for residential care, and the rest for indirect costs.

All mental disorders are a big factor in sick leaves, aka. absenteeism and Bipolar Disorder is no exception. People with Bipolar Disorder diagnosis may experience some difficulties at workplace due to manic episodes, depression, history of psychiatric hospitalization, personality disorders and substance abuse.

Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder report having periods of depression that affect their life in general. Patients stated that that their perceived life quality was low because of their lack of functioning during depressive episodes.

Although occupational functioning has not been researched extensively in terms of people diagnosed with bipolar disorder, there are some works showing that people with this illness tend to have lower functioning levels with some exceptions; in other words, people with the diagnosis usually have lower occupational functioning levels , but about 16 percent of them are highly functioning.

A research conducted to evaluate the occupational functioning has concluded that about 30% of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder are unemployed and 18% do not reside independently.

Especially patients with higher prevalence of depressive episodes were found to have more difficulties at work, therefore, lower levels of occupational functioning, since depression can be very disabling in organizational environment. Other than that, some factors that lead to lower levels of occupational functioning is stigmatization experiences of the individuals who disclose their disorder at work. The exclusion that comes with it disturbs communication, therefore, decreases functioning.

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