microRNAs – Biogenesis of microRNAs – microRNAs and Cancer


microRNAs microRNAs are small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs which are 22-25 nucleotides long. They target mRNAs and either cleave or deadenylate the mRNAs or repress the translation. By these ways, they facilitate gene silencing and they are one of the main regulators of biological processes. They have role in every cellular activity and are very important … Read more

Fibroblasts | Activation of Fibroblasts


Fibroblasts Definitition Fibroblasts are classic spindle-shaped cells and have multiple distinct functions. Principally, they build up and degrade the ECM by releasing collagens, MMPs, and other fibrous molecules. The interaction among fibroblasts is driven by integrin signaling and it affects the distribution of collagens (ref). Similarly, collagen fibers affect the allocation of fibroblasts in ECM. … Read more

Phytoplankton and Freshwater Quality


Phytoplankton are microscopic biotic and photosynthesizing organisms and it has a key role in determining water quality. High nutritive value features of phytoplankton are important primary producers. Phytoplankton are distributed on wide habitat on earth and important organisms for the biosphere. However; phytoplankton have an essential ecological mission being food sources as well as being … Read more

NSAIDs – Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (2021)

NSAIDs Nonsteroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most prescribed drug class for ones suffering from pain, fever, and inflammation. Daily, over 30 million aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs are being consumed consciously or unconsciously. Currently, Aspirin™ has been a widely utilized pharmaceutical for 123 years and is appointed as the progenitor … Read more

PI3K – Protein tyrosine kinases


Protein tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases have crucial functions in cell signaling, differentiation, motility, and proliferation. PI3K is the most deregulated pathway in human cancers and an essential regulator of cellular proliferation. PI3K pathway is activated via oncogenic Ras/receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), PTEN loss, or activating mutations in PI3Ks. Moreover, PI3K is one of the … Read more

General Futures of Chickpea


General Futures of Chickpea Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is mainly produced in the Mediterranean Basin and South Asia, also in the world, chickpea is the third most important type of legume. Chickpea is thought to have first domesticated within the region including Turkey, south-east and adjacent Syria. For the fact that three closely related wild … Read more